I. Critical Approach to Problems
Quick and easy understanding of the information provided by the professors or authors enables the researcher to pay attention to easily pass the surface and reach the deeper layers and dimensions of the issues.
So the researcher can notice issues, such as internal consistency and coherence, consistency with the previous data, the alignment of the content with the used method, and its accuracy or inaccuracy. But the critical approach does not always have a favorable outcome for the researcher, and even in some cases presents them with adverse challenges. For example, the articulation of complex issues in some cases challenges the scientific prestige of some researchers. This challenge can be properly understood when the questions of these individuals are often unpredictable and.
Not confessing to one’s mistakes on the one hand and the fear of being considered illiterate because of their inability to answer to unexpected questions, on the other hand, make the situation even more difficult. Moreover, may also be labeled impolite and inconsiderate. Other scholars, instead of sympathizing with them and understanding their real concerns, disturbing questions, and problems, accuse them of raising inappropriate questions and criticisms. It is noteworthy that despite being critical towards the views of others, a researcher is not as accepting and tolerant when facing criticism of others! Most creative thinkers refuse to accept the critical views of others and often reject them.
J. Innovation and Creativity
Creativity is the most distinctive feature of human beings in comparison with other creatures. Although all human beings have a certain level of creativity and innovation, living within a society and entrapment within the chains of traditions prevents the realization of mental potentials. But, some people are able to make use of their intellectual and cognitive abilities at the highest levels. Given the semantic ambiguity of this concept, first of all, we will define the concept of creativity, and then address the most important characteristics of this feature and its place in the education of the elite. The word creativity has many definitions. We will explain some of them below:
“Creativity implies the ability to express new and useful ideas, making use of new communication technologies, and asking new but essential questions.”
“Creativity means paying attention to the details, elements, and the ordered and logical arrangements as well as discovering innovative and unprecedented solutions. They need to be arranged in such a way to create a whole whose design or structure did not previously exist.”
“Intellectual creativity empowers people to create information and thoughts outside of their physical self.” A kind of information that is fresh, different, and personally meaningful.
Others have described the distinctiveness of the mental process leading to problem-solving as the main characteristic of creativity. “The term creativity refers to those mental processes that lead to solutions, ideas, conceptualizations, unique, and new art forms.”
Based on the abovementioned definitions and explanations of creativity, the characteristics of creative thinking are:
- Creative thinking involves combining ideas;
- Sometimes it requires divergent thinking;
- It requires some kind of non-traditional mental operation;
- It involves a type of mental intuition that is involuntary in some cases.
- It results in the emergence of a new phenomenon (an idea or visible effect).
- It is new not only for the creative person but also for others.
- It has significant and outstanding theoretical validity or practical value.