- State promptly and clearly all the main items involved, ones including your key words.
- Then, when referring to these items use “this / these / such,” and offer more than just the pronoun:
- Save words by adding data: “This extremely effective program/model.”
- Make the text talk about the text itself
English loves signposts, or connectives, because they tell readers how to receive new information.
- Use not only “First … second … third …,” but other types of signposts, such as:“On the other hand …” “Considering this from another angle …” “Similar to the last point is …” “Conversely …” “Equally serious is …”
- Edit to avoid series of short and thus choppy sentences:
Link some and embed others within their neighbors.
Use the shortest sentences for the strongest statements.
- Cut out every extra word that performs no task.
Here’s a checklist of things you can consider cutting:
→ Adverbs, especially those with “ly” endings. Ask yourself if they’re necessary.
→ Adjectives. Often people use two or three when one or none is better.
→ Gerunds. Words that end in “ing.”
→ Passive voice: Over-use of words like “was,” “were” and “that” indicate your writing may be too passive. Reconstruct in active voice.
→ Passages that are overly descriptive.
→ Passages that tell the reader what they already know.
Avoid repeating FACTS. Planned repetition of WORDS helps linkage. Confusion results from synonym-use. Make yourself clear by choosing one term. Do not indulge in overuse of a synonym dictionary (thesaurus). For instance, “Method / methodology / procedure / system” must never mean the same thing. We will assume that they mean four different things.