Publication Ethics-(Part3)

Draft Competition There is a competition for drafts when several articles are written on the basis of one study, but two or more authors are involved. The result will be that the authenticity of the study is diminished and the subject of copyright may be lost. When a scientific content has been published in several Read more about Publication Ethics-(Part3)[…]

Provision of satisfactory conditions for draft article submission

Draft articles are the raw materials of a scientific journal without which, journal will cease publication. Many scientific journals start as quarterly; however, their publication may end in failure due to non submission of sufficient drafts in the absence of a thorough planning. Numerous journals are always out there to publish the draft article. In Read more about Provision of satisfactory conditions for draft article submission[…]

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Articles are usually subjected to editing even if they were previously peer-reviewed. In fact, articles are usually edited for a couple of times to eliminate their probable errors. The editing process of a journal highly depends on financial resources. The journals with limited budget usually employ one editor or ask their general editorial board to do the editing. In such cases, a member of an editorial board may voluntarily provide editing services which lead to a high volume of tasks. On the other hand, they might not be highly skillful in editing resulting in obvious mistakes. In this regard, editing services are mainly provided in three different types.

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Digital Object Identifier(DOI)

Digital Object Identifier commonly recognized as DOI is a standard number used for journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications to enhance their accessibility. In fact, DOI is a string of numbers that is exclusively assigned to each article. The DOI helps the publishers to enhance the visibility and quality of their journals.

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Tips before the submission of an article

Before any decision to submit an article for a journal, the authors should consider some important issues. As a researcher, you can firstly ask a colleague to read your draft and give you his/her honest feedback. It is essential to choose a person who has not been involved in the article to have his/her unbiased criticism. Moreover, s/he should be warranted that his/her comments do not affect his/her relationship with you.

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Stylistic elements of a scientific article

The main purpose of an article is to be published in media in order to inform the audience about some new changes to the word. Depending on the type of an article, the writing style of an article may vary. An academic article is the one which should follow not only an organized the format but also a consistent style. This essay deals with the stylistic issues that a researcher need to take into consideration.

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Sample size determination

Sample size determination is an important step in conducting research since it should provide the necessary information about the population of the study. In case the sample size is smaller than expected, the obtained results of the study cannot be generalized to the target population. On the other hand, the larger the sample size the more precise the findings. However, it is not usually possible to have a large sample size due to research limitations, such as cost, time, or the convenience of collecting the data. There are different approaches to calculate the sample size:


Observational studies

The main aim of these studies is not only to describe and express the status of the present situation, but also to identify and compare the relationships between two or more variables and their impact in different groups.

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Descriptive studies

Descriptive research is a type of research method which explains the existing phenomenon without considering the causes of the phenomenon under the study. In this regard, the data is collected through investigating the effect of the phenomenon on the investigated the population. There is a need to consider the following three characteristics in descriptive research:


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