There are two types of citation styles: Vancouver and the Harvard. However, the Council of Science Editors (CSE) has added another style which is called the footnote reference style.
The Vancouver style contains sequential numbers in the text that are written in brackets or as superscript, or both. These numbers refer to footnotes (notes at the bottom of each page or footer) or endnotes (notes at the end of the article) that specify the source details. Depending on whether the author uses the complete or abbreviated form of the notes, the notes system may or may not be in the form of a complete bibliography.
For example, part of the text of an article using the non-bibliographical system is as follows:
“These five stages are grief, denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.”
In this case, a note at the bottom of the page (footer) or at the end of the article (endnote) will be as follows:
- Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45–60.
On the other hand, in an article with a complete bibliography, a brief note can be written as follows:
- Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying 45–60.
The entry of bibliography, which is required for the brief note, will look like this:
Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
In anthropology, many authors use footnotes or endnotes to add narrative information; as a result, what is commonly cited is, in fact, supplementary material or suggestions for further study in that field.
The bracket reference, also known as the Harvard reference, consists of full or partial in-text citations that come in parentheses in the paragraph.
Below is an example of a citation based on the Harvard style:
“These five stages are grief, denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.” (Kübler-Ross,1969, p 45–60)
Depending on the selected style, if you choose the Harvard style, it may not be needed to add a section at the end, containing a full list of bibliographic citations that lists the authors’ names in alphabetical order. This section is often called “References”, “Bibliography”, or “Works Cited “.
In-text citations of online articles may not adhere to the guidelines of the conventional Harvard style. Complete references can be hidden in online articles and only be displayed in another text to the readers who wants to see it. This simplifies citations and improves the experience of the reader.
Footnote Reference Style
In this style, just like the Harvard style, superscript numbers are inserted where the citation is inserted, except that they are arranged at the end of the article or book and are usually arranged alphabetically by the author.