Components of a Proposal (Part 3)

11. Statistical Population

Components of a ProposalA statistical population is a set of individuals or units with at least one common trait. Typically, in any research the population under study is a statistical population that the researcher would like to study about the variable (s) of its units.

12. Sample Size

In general, data represent facts, concepts, or guidelines. If data are in the form of words describing the facts, then they are called qualitative data. But if they are in the form of numbers, they are called quantitative.

13. Data Analysis

One of the following methods can be used to collect the needed data from the statistical population:

Census: In this method, the complete data is collected from each member of the statistical population.

Sampling is as follows: a) simple random b) systematic random c) cluster e) multistage f) stratified

14. Description of Theoretical Frameworks of Research

“Theory” illuminates the realities of the theorems, which means that the theorems can be tested with real empirical data in the real world.

Theory is always presented in the process of “research”. Sometimes “research” is performed to test the theory. In some cases, the “research hypothesis” is taken from the theory. In most studies, analysis methods are considered to be strong and appropriate only when they guide the findings along theories.

It is necessary for the researcher to express the theory of scientists and researchers that is relevant to the subject of research in the research design and to move forward within the framework of the theory to the end of his research.

15. Budget and Services

In this section, the researcher identifies the number of personnel and their type of responsibilities, the total hours spent on the research and the amount of manpower required for execution of the project, supplies, and equipment, then estimates the cost of the plan. After this, She/he provides the credit provider organization with a proposal.

16. Works Cited

It is necessary to list all the resources used in the preparation of the proposal, including books, proposals, theses, articles, journals, and scientific papers.

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