What is research

Although research and exploration are familiar words, these words sound different.

What is research? It may not be possible to call a piece of research (studying a subject or even thinking about it in articles and books) as a study. Generally, a researcher may raise questions that no one has ever responded to. Sometimes, the initial answer to the question may be mentioned in other books and studies; however, the researcher may not be convinced by the responses and wants to expand his/her knowledge in this regard. Sometimes, the researcher may find contradictory and confusing responses to his/her questions in various sources. In these situation, it is necessary to carry out a research process. Research is the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in order to answer a question or solve a particular problem.

In addition, any attempt to understand the unknown and extend the information is called research. Although human beings tend to do research instinctively, it is necessary to conduct it based on the academic models of the principles and foundations of research.

Types of research

There are various views toward research; therefore, there are different research categories.

  • The first research group includes:
  • Fundamental research
  • Applied research
  • Applied-fundamental Research

The second research group is categorized based on the research hypotheses and study design before or after data collection.

It includes:

  • Deductive research
  • Inductive research


  1. This kind of research is less reliable and it is the main cause of most article
  2. This research is cost intensive and the researcher may not reach any logical conclusion.
  3. Most research projects utilize both methods. However, the first important thing is that the inductive part does not disrupt the main process. The second point is that the deductive part has a larger inference and focus.
  4. The  inductive section of the studies is presented in secondary findings.

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