Many journals use peer review process as a screening process for manuscripts. In majority of cases, students and young researchers try to publish their work without knowing anything about the peer review process. Peer review is the process of research evaluation and assessment by experts in a specific academic disciplines. Therefore, This process is often considered as an expert advice system that helps journal editors make a decision about the value a manuscript for publication.
The origin of peer review process
In the past, the journal editor screened the submitted manuscripts. However, with the emergence of new scientific disciplines and higher number of papers, journals decided that there was a need for subject matter experts for manuscript screening. It is good to remember that peer reviewers evaluate the quality of research critically and give suggestions for changes in manuscript as per their critical point of view.
Different types of peer review
There are different types of peer review for evaluation of research quality: single blind, double blind, or open peer review, or post-publication peer review. Regardless of the method taken, the process of peer review aims to validate research and make sure that the published scientific work has a global impact.
Dealing with peer review
Comments given by a peer reviewer are different, from asking for minor revisions or language editing to major ones such as expanding the experiment. Normally, journals accept papers only if all comments are addressed. Therefore, the responds to the reviewer’s comments must be polite, precise and based on evidence.
The problems of peer review system
Conflict of interests, late respond, reviewer’s bias and plagiarism are among the problems of peer reviewing system. Even though peer review is a process free of monetary transactions, there are many unnoticed costs involved, such as the amount of time spent by journal editors and reviewers. Also there are still conflicting views regarding the matter that peer review should be done free of charge.
Therefore, it can be said that the peer review process aims to ensure the quality of published science.