Ethics and publishing (Part 2)

To develop the discussion on the topic of Ethics, this article explores the issues related to the sources of funding, conflicts of interest, fraud, plagiarism, and duplicate submission.

Sources of funding

The authors are sometimes funded by an organization or institute to conduct a study. Therefore, the authors should mention their source of funding while they send it for submission.

Conflicts of interest

Conflicts of interest refers to the benefits that the authors may have after the publication (e.g., employment in a specific organization, gaining a grant, etc). Therefore, the benefits that the authors may have could work against the main process of research and publication. As a result, the editorial board of a journal should be aware of the conflicts of interest to make final decisions.


Fraud includes presentation of unreal data, manipulation of the results, or biased declaration of the obtained results. It is difficult for a journal to detect fraud; however, the reviewers and the editorial boards should be conscious about fraud. In case fraud occurs, the authors would not be trusted anymore for further publications.


Plagiarism means quoting other authors without giving the credits to them and mentioning their names. Authors are then encouraged to quote others through a proper ways of citation. With the advent of technology nowadays, it is easy to detect the plagiarized texts using some software, such as iThenticate.

Duplicate submission

Duplicate submission refers to the time when the author submit his/her article to more than one journals. This issue is considered unethical since it may create conflicts between the journal owners regarding the right of publication.

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