Firstly, the introduction of the article starts by expressing the identity (ID) of research, including the names of the authors that has two benefits.
1. Respect for the past and other scholars
2- Declare the validity of the article in question
Then, in the section of the research ID, the time of the research and if not available the publication time of the article should be mentioned. Finally, the location of the research should be determined.
The expression of the place firstly indicates the validity of the article, and secondly, along with the time of performing the study can show the probable conditions of the research. As an example in an epidemiological study in which the outbreak of a disease is examined, expressing the two above-mentioned points will also be helpful in criticizing the study, as well as the importance of considering the native time and conditions of the study area.
After expressing the article’s ID for the introduction of the research, the structure and design of the study should be briefly summarized.
In order to write the design of the study, taking the following steps are necessary:
Criteria and tools for the inclusion and exclusion of samples
Number of samples
Defining the problem by mentioning indicators and measurement tools
Case and control groups (in case of necessity and presence) and age groups if the age range is wide
How to interfere with the details so that another person can exactly repeat the study
The impact of the intervention with the definition of intervention, mentioning the indicators and measurement tools
Used statistical software
Then, the findings and conclusion should be separately expressed at the end of the paper.
The section of findings should answer to the main question and the main hypothesis.
For example, did the study determine the prevalence of the target disease or not? Was it able to find a connection between the cause and effect? Was the new intervention effective?
After expressing the findings, conclusion section should also be mentioned, because sometimes the result of the study differs from the findings due to limitations and problems during the project. Otherwise, the study limitations are introduced to other researchers.