Ethics in Research

Research ethics were first introduced as a result of Nuremberg trials in 1947 at the end of World Wide II when  23 doctors and bureaucrats were accused in the trials of military courts for their cruel rules against humanity. The reason for this was that a large number of physicians and military authorities conducted their experiments on a large number of individuals, who are unaware of the conducted studies. These experiments led to a high mortality rate. In this regard, the following ten points of the code were proposed to stop this condition:

  1. It is necessary to have the voluntary consent of the human subjects. This means that the subjects should be legally eligible to give consent and voluntarily express their willingness to take part in the research.
  2. The research should be beneficial for the target population, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and important to conduct in nature.
  3. The experiment should be designed based on the results obtained from animal experimentation or natural history of the disease to justify the performance of the experiment.
  4. The research should be designed in a way that avoids any harmful physical or mental harm.
  5. The research should not yield to any mortality or severe injuries.
  6. The degree of risk to be taken should never be higher than the determined risk by the experiment.
  7. There is a need to make the necessary preparation to protect the subjects against death, disability, injury.
  8. The research should be conducted by qualified scientists with the highest level of skill.
  9. In the course of the study, nothing should threaten the physical or mental states of participants and let them withdraw from the research at any point.
  10. During the course of study, the participants should be allowed to leave the research whenever they feel that they do not possess the necessary skills to continue the research.

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